Element Copper - Cu

Comprehensive data on the chemical element Copper is provided on this page; including scores of properties, element names in many languages, most known nuclides of Copper. Common chemical compounds are also provided for many elements. In addition technical terms are linked to their definitions and the menu contains links to related articles that are a great aid in one"s studies.

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Copper Menu

Copper Page OneOverview of CopperCopper"s Name in Other LanguagesAtomic Structure of CopperChemical Properties of CopperPhysical Properties of CopperRegulatory / HealthWho/When/Where/HowCopper Page TwoNuclides / IsotopesPotential Parent NuclidesCopper Page ThreeCommon Chemical Compounds of Copper

Overview of Copper

Atomic Number: 29Group: 11Period: 4Series: Transition Metals

Copper"s Name in Other Languages

Latin: CuprumCzech: Měd´Croatian: BakarFrench: CuivreGerman: Kupfer - eItalian: RameNorwegian: KobberPortuguese: CobreRussian: МедьSpanish: CobreSwedish: KopparAtomic Structure of CopperAtomic Radius: 1.57ÅAtomic Volume: 7.1cm3/molCovalent Radius: 1.17ÅCross Section (Thermal Neutron Capture)σa/barns: 3.78Crystal Structure: Cubic face centered
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Electron Configuration:1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s1Electrons per Energy Level: 2,8,18,1Shell Model
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Ionic Radius:
0.73ÅFilling Orbital: 3d10Number of Electrons (with no charge): 29Number of Neutrons (most common/stable nuclide): 35Number of Protons: 29Oxidation States: 2,1Valence Electrons: 3d10 4s1

Chemical Properties of Copper

Electrochemical Equivalent: 1.1855g/amp-hrElectron Work Function: 4.65eVElectronegativity: 1.9 (Pauling); 1.75 (Allrod Rochow)Heat of Fusion: 13.05kJ/molIncompatibilities:Oxidizers, alkalis, sodium azide, acetyleneIonization PotentialFirst: 7.726Second: 20.292Third: 36.83Valence Electron Potential (-eV): 34

Physical Properties of Copper

Atomic Mass Average: 63.546Boiling Point: 2840K 2567°C 4653°FCoefficient of lineal thermal expansion/K-1: 16.5E-6ConductivityElectrical: 0.596 106/cm ΩThermal: 4.01 W/cmKDensity: 8.96g/cc
300KDescription: Reddish orange transition metal.Elastic Modulus:Bulk: 137.8/GPaRigidity: 48.3/GPaYoungs: 129.8/GPaEnthalpy of Atomization: 338.9 kJ/mole
25°CEnthalpy of Fusion: 13.01 kJ/moleEnthalpy of Vaporization: 304.6 kJ/moleFlammablity Class: Non-combustible solid (except as dust)Freezing Point: see melting pointHardness ScaleBrinell: 874 MN m-2Mohs: 3Vickers: 369 MN m-2Heat of Vaporization: 300.3kJ/molMelting Point: 1357.75K 1084.6°C 1984.3°FMolar Volume: 7.11 cm3/moleOptical Reflectivity: 90%Physical State (at 20°C & 1atm): SolidSpecific Heat: 0.38J/gKVapor Pressure = 0.0505Pa
1084.6°C

Regulatory / Health

CAS Number7440-50-8RTECS: GL5325000NFPA 704Health: 2Fire: Reactivity:Special Hazard: OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)TWA: 1 mg/m3OSHA PEL Vacated 1989TWA: 1 mg/m3NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit (REL)TWA: 1 mg/m3IDLH: 100 mg/m3 Routes of Exposure: Inhalation; Ingestion; Skin and/or eye contactTarget Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, liver, kidneys (increase(d) risk with Wilson"s disease)Levels In Humans:Note: this data represents naturally occuring levels of elements in the typical human, it DOES NOT represent recommended daily allowances.Blood/mg dm-3: 1.01Bone/p.p.m: 1-26Liver/p.p.m: 30Muscle/p.p.m: 10Daily Dietary Intake: 0.50-6 mgTotal Mass In Avg. 70kg human: 72 mg

Who / Where / When / How

Discoverer: Known to ancient civilizationDiscovery Location: UnknownDiscovery Year: UnknownName Origin:Latin: cyprium (island of Cyprus famed for its copper mines).Abundance of Copper:Earth"s Crust/p.p.m.: 50Seawater/p.p.m.: Atlantic Suface: 0.00008Atlantic Deep: 0.00012Pacific Surface: 0.00008Pacific Deep: 0.00028Atmosphere/p.p.m.: N/ASun (Relative to H=1E12): 1.15Sources of Copper:Pure copper occurs rarely in nature. Usually copper found in such minerals as azurite, malachite and bornite and in sulfides as in chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), coveline (CuS), chalcosine (Cu2S) or oxides like cuprite (Cu2O). Copper is obtained by smelting, leaching and by electrolysis. Annual world production is around 6,540,000 tons. Primary mining areas are in USA, Zaire, Zambia, Canada, Chile, Cyprus, Russia and Australia.Uses of Copper:Most often used as an electrical conductor. Its alloys are used in jewelry, bronze sculptures and for coins. The skin of the Statue of Liberty is made of copper.Additional Notes:Copper is a very interesting element. It is one of the transition elements that actually uses electrons from one of the inner orbitals in chemical reactions. In addition, it has more than one oxidation state. Like many of the transition elements, copper has a colored ion. Copper typically forms a bluish green solution. Copper (Cu) has two valences Cu I (cuprous) has one valence electron and Cu II (cupric) has two valence electrons. Copper was one of the earliest known metals, having reportedly been mined for over 5000 years. In nature it has two isotopes, 63 (69.09%), which has 29 electrons and protons and 34 neutrons, and 65 (30.91%), which has 29 electrons and protons and 36 neutrons. Brass and bronze are alloys of copper.

Copper Menu

Copper Page OneOverview of CopperCopper"s Name in Other LanguagesAtomic Structure of CopperChemical Properties of CopperPhysical Properties of CopperRegulatory / HealthWho/When/Where/HowCopper Page TwoNuclides / IsotopesPotential Parent NuclidesCopper Page ThreeCommon Chemical Compounds of Copper

References

A list of reference sources used to compile the data provided on our periodic table of elements can be found on the main periodic table page.

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