High-end vehicles are often equipped through a Passive Keyless Entry and Start (PKES) system. This PKES systems permit to unlock and start the automobile based top top the physics proximity that a paired vital fob; no user interaction is required.

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In this kind of attack two adversaries relay the short-range interaction over a long-range communication channel. Recent news reports and also home security videos have displayed that relay strikes are generally used to steal high-end vehicles. Street bounding instrument are progressively being deployed come preclude relay attacks.

The score of our study was to advice the resistance the a modern-day PKES device to attacks other than relay attacks. Us have completely reverse engineered the PKES device used in the Tesla design S. Ours research shows that this mechanism is utilizing the outdated proprietary DST40 cipher.

The Passive Keyless Entry and Start (PKES) mechanism as presented earlier allows to both unlock and also start the automobile if the key fob is in proximity. In our blog post we carry out a streamlined explanation of exactly how the Tesla design S PKES mechanism works and also why that is insecure. A an ext technical and thorough explanation the our study will be released soon as a paper.


Q. The video shows the Phase X bring away Y seconds, what walk this typical exactly?

A. In the case of phase 0 we have to receive the id broadcasted by the target vehicle. Due to the fact that receiving these radio frequency signal isn’t constantly reliable, we keep listening for identifiers as long as us haven’t got the same one thrice. The time presented in the video clip is the elapsed time between receiving the an initial identifier message and also the last one.

Similarly, because that Phase 1 us transmit challenges to the vital fob which replies through a response. To make sure we received the exactly response, us transmit the same an obstacle until we obtain a response at least twice. The time shown is again the elapsed time in between receiving a very first response and also the last one.

Q. Are the tools open up source?

A. Us won’t it is in releasing all tools required to go out and also steal the impacted vehicles. At a later on stage we will release components of the tools that can help other researchers.

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Q. Exactly how close perform you need to be come a key fob come clone it?

A. The maximum range is mostly affected by the transmission of the low Frequency signals. Our experiments show that a vital fob can efficiently receive the signal sent by one unmodified Proxmark3 indigenous a distance approximately 1m. This range can be raised by making use of purposely develop antennas and also transmission hardware. It has actually been displayed in the previous that this distance could be boosted to eight meter <1>.